Here’s some great stuff on nystagmus.
Understanding nystagmus and approaching nystagmus is often difficult and confusing, most probably because the pathophysiology for nystagmus is not clearly defined and there is no pathognomonic nystagmus sign that could lead to a single diagnosis. In fact, there is an exhaustive list of diseases for a single nystagmus finding[ref1]. However, it does not mean that we cannot narrow down our diagnoses; by the existence of postulated hypothesis for the pathophysiology of nystagmus, we can somehow localize the lesion.
Nystagmus is defined as an involuntary to-and-fro oscillatory movement of the eyeballs[ref2]. Nystagmus is named by its direction of fast phase. If the fast phase is toward the left, then it is named left horizontal nystagmus. If the fast phase is upwardly, then it is named upbeat nystagmus[ref2][ref3]. The slow phase is, generally, the “pathological” incident while the fast phase represents the corrective re-compensation.
In approaching nystagmus, we will have to classify…
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